The most important exercise prior to doing actual surgery is the completion of the preoperative template. Its tangible structure reflects the amount of preparation trainees and their attending pour into for the success of the procedure. The discipline allotted for the task offsets incorrect fracture configuration, considers the best approach, and places value in hardware and implant preparation. The practice ultimately decreases varying degrees of surgical morbidities and time delay in the operating theater. In this area of practice, there is a window for innovation and the invitation to discover is wide open. A progressive timeline showing the evolution of preoperative templating in one institution will be shared, beginning with the classic exercise of templating on paper, to using an app, then with the considerable augmentation brought about by 3D printing.
Charnley J. Technique of low friction arthroplasty of the hip. In: Low Friction Arthroplasty of the Hip. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag; 1979. p. 246.
Porteous M, Südkamp NP, Scahtzker J. Preoperative planning. In: Rüedi TP, Buckley RE, Moran CG, editors. AO Principles of Fracture Management. 2nd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Thieme; 2007. p. 155–162.
Suh KT, Cheon SJ, Kim DW. Comparison of preoperative templating with postoperative assessment in cementless total hip arthroplasty. Acta Orthop Scand 2004;75(1):40–44. DOI: 10.1080/00016470410001708070
Yoshii Y, Totoki Y, Tung WL, et al. A comparison of radiographic outcomes between 3D preoperative planning and conventional planning in the osteosynthesis of distal radius fractures. J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol 2019;24(3):303–310. DOI: 10.1142/S2424835519500383
Yang P, Du D, Zhou Z, et al. 3D printing-assisted osteotomy treatment for the malunion of lateral tibial plateau fracture. Injury 2016;47(12):2816–2821. DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2016.09.025
Lima DJL, Markel J, Yawman JP, et al. 3D preoperative planning for humeral head selection in total shoulder arthroplasty. Musculoskelet Surg 2020;104(2):155–161. DOI: 10.1007/s12306-019-00602-5
Ganguli A, Pagan-Diaz GJ, Grant L, et al. 3D printing for preoperative planning and surgical training: a review. Biomed Microdevices 2018;20(3):65. DOI: 10.1007/s10544-018-0301-9
Porteous M. Preoperative planning. In: Buckley RE, Moran CG, Apivatthakakul T, editors. AO Principles of Fracture Management. 3rd ed. Vol. 1. New York: Thieme; 2018. p. 105–113.
Dhillon MS, Dureja K, Patel S, et al. How we do it. Trimalleolar fractures: fixing the posterior malleolus by posterolateral approach. J Foot Ankle Surg Asia Pac 2017;4(2):63–68. DOI: 10.5005/jp-journals-10040-1073
Foo GL, Kwek EBK. Are three-dimensional printed models useful for preoperative planning of tibial plafond fractures? J Foot Ankle Surg 2019;58(4):723–729. DOI: 10.1053/j.jfas.2018.12.005
Kang HJ, Kim BS, Kim SM, et al. Can preoperative 3D printing change surgeon's operative plan for distal tibia fracture? Biomed Res Int 2019;2019:7059413. DOI: 10.1155/2019/7059413
Kwon JY, Zurakowski D, Ellington JK. Influence of contralateral radiographs on accuracy of anatomic reduction in surgically treated calcaneus fractures. Foot Ankle Int 2015;36(1):75–82. DOI: 10.1177/1071100714552483
Corona PS, Vicente M, Tetsworth K, et al. Preliminary results using patient-specific 3D printed models to improve preoperative planning for correction of post-traumatic tibial deformities with circular frames. Injury 2018;49 Suppl 2:S51–S59. DOI: 10.1016/j.injury.2018.07.017
Fadero PE, Shah M. Three dimensional (3D) modelling and surgical planning in trauma and orthopaedics. Surgeon 2014;12(6):328–333. DOI: 10.1016/j.surge.2014.03.008
Jiang M, Chen G, Coles-Black J, et al. Three-dimensional printing in orthopaedic preoperative planning improves intraoperative metrics: a systematic review. ANZ J Surg 2020;90(3):243–250. DOI: 10.1111/ans.15549